This past semester, SUB has made it its goal to increase their offerings to a wider range of the student body, and its efforts to diversify the big names they bring to campus have showed, such as in the Karamo Brown talk. SUB’s presence can be felt throughout campus, and the consistent range of events available does not hurt, but its signature event — the fall SUB concert — fell flat, with many students not even realizing it took place this semester and no recognizable artist headlining. Grade: BTags: 2018 Student Government Insider, Karamo Brown, Student Union Board, SUB, SUB concert Bringing high-profile guests, student concerts and movies to the student body, the Student Union Board (SUB) has made its goal diversifying its events and branding itself more distinctly this semester. “We saw a lot of people that knew events that SUB did and have been to some events that SUB has done, but did not know they were SUB events or didn’t even know what SUB was,” senior Allison Dopazo, director of operations for SUB, said. “So we tried to brand ourselves more and increase awareness of who we are as a group.”Bethany Boggess, executive director of SUB, said SUB sponsors campus events on a weekly basis. In the last week alone, SUB hosted a talk with Karamo Brown from the Netflix show “Queer Eye” and held its annual fall concert. Although professional artists typically perform at the SUB fall concert, this year the group chose to showcase student talent.“We mostly just wanted to recognize how much student talent there is on this campus and how few opportunities there are to preform,” Boggess said. “Obviously we have AcoustiCafe, but the fall concert really allowed for other types of performers to engage.” Other notable events from this semester include $3 movies — the most recent being “Polar Express” — and AcoustiCafe, which showcases student performers in a low-key setting Thursday nights in Duncan Student Center.Boggess said the movie showings have been successful for SUB this semester.“We’ve been really strategic with the movies that we’ve chosen to try to consider different groups of students on campus and what they might like to see and not just what we want to see,” she said.Boggess acknowledged that SUB is typically known for its concerts and its ability to bring big names to campus, but she wishes other SUB events would be recognized more. “I think that people mostly know the concerts, which is fun, but I still feel like that’s all anyone is waiting for … but I’m just like, ‘No, look at all these cool things we do, like movies every week for only $3 and we have AcoustiCafe every week,’” Boggess said. “We just did an event where we had a bunch of free pastries and coffee from Einstein’s Bagels and really cool professors came and you could just hang out with them and ask them about their lives. … So I wish that it was easier to get people roped in.”Boggess said she also believes many people on campus do not know their favorite events may be SUB-sponsored and noted an increase in branding as one of their semester goals. “Again, going back to people not attributing events to SUB or people don’t attribute the events that they love to SUB … maybe they know what AnTostal is, but they didn’t realize it was a SUB event,” she said. “ … Maybe that is a branding issue on our part.”Dopazo said nine committees work together to put on the many events SUB hosts, including the Concerts Committee.“I think on a leadership perspective, it’s important that all the lead programmers of the nine committees we have — concerts being one of them — feel equally as important and feel like they’re equally contributing to what SUB is and to the student body in general,” Dopazo said. “Because I don’t think it’s fair for the concerts lead programmer to have all those pressures and then for all the other lead programmers to feel like their stuff isn’t as important, which it obviously is.”Dopazo and Boggess both said they are proud of their work this semester in diversifying SUB’s events, and noted that the AnTostal theme for the coming semester will also be a nod to this effort, though the theme has not been released yet. “This year, I think we’ve diversified our events, and I think that’s because we have had more of an eye for that,” Dopazo said. “One example is the Karamo Brown event. He’s a very proud, gay, black man, and it’s so important to have this kind of voice expressed, especially on our campus.”Dopazo said the organization is trying to promote diversity in its other events as well.“We’ve diversified our movies to incorporate different kinds of interests, and things of that nature,” she said SUB also welcomed a new advisor this year, Alicia Bates, who has helped the group keep a mindful approach to their planning. “[Bates is] really pushing us, and what’s really nice is that since she’s brand new, she’s able to see SUB from a totally external point of view,” Boggess said. “So we will say ‘OK, here’s our movies lineup.’ And she’s like, ‘Why?’ And then you’re forced to think about, ‘OK, why are we doing this?’”With the many different student programming groups on campus, Boggess and Dopazo recognize there are many options for students and have made an effort to work with other groups to create events instead of competing with them. “We try to do so much,” Boggess said. “But I guess overall, we just want to provide programming to the student body that’s something that they want and that they desire for their college experience to make use of Notre Dame as a destination that cool people will want to come and engage in and to just bolster the community as much as possible.”
Being an outdoor enthusiast inevitably lends itself to plenty of moments when sh*t hits the fan. We’ve consulted a panel of four of the region’s wilderness medicine experts with 12 real-life scenarios so you can prepare for the worst and hope for the best on your next adventure.OUR SURVIVAL EXPERTS… are wilderness medicine ninjas well versed in the ways of Mother Nature’s capriciousness. They are climbers, paddlers, surfers, outdoor enthusiasts of every type who know firsthand what can go wrong when you’re recreating outside.David FiferOwner, Red River Adventure Medical, LLC | Coordinator, Red River Gorge Special Treatment, Access, and Rescue Team | Lecturer, Emergency Medical Care, Eastern Kentucky UniversityOriginally from Roanoke, Va., Fifer has served in the emergency medical services field for 15 years. His love of climbing landed him in eastern Kentucky, where he now serves wilderness rescue needs in the Red River Gorge and Natural Bridge State Park.Karsten DelapOwner and Head of Alpine Programs | Fox Mountain GuidesWilderness EMT | AMGA Certified Rock and Alpine Guide Instructor |High Angle, Technical, and Wilderness Rescue, National Park Service | Volunteer, Brevard Rescue Team and Henderson County Rescue SquadWhen Delap’s not guiding clients on climbs, he’s rescuing climbers from some of the very places he guides. Delap’s resume is chock full of high-altitude summits of some of the most revered mountains in the world, but his most important work is often done right here in the Blue Ridge near his western North Carolina home.Mairi PadgettAdministrative Director, Landmark Learning | Instructor, National Outdoor Leadership School Wilderness MedicineIn 1996, Mairi and her husband Justin founded Landmark Learning out of their apartment. Now, 21 years later, the Padgetts oversee the nation’s leading institution for education and training in the outdoor community, the first outdoor school in the country to receive a national education accreditation.Seth Collings HawkinsAssistant Professor of Emergency Medicine, Wake Forest University | Medical Director, Burke County EMS & Burke County Communications | Medical Director, North Carolina State Parks |Chief, Appalachian Mountain Rescue TeamFor over 20 years, Hawkins has made out-of-hospital, in-field medical care his specialty. He’s founded numerous organizations, including the Appalachian Center for Wilderness Medicine and the Carolina Wilderness EMS Externship, and is the lead author for the upcoming climbing medicine and wilderness first aid handbook Vertical Aid (available April 2017).Scenario 1, Excessive BleedingThe Scene: It’s a quiet afternoon near Kentucky’s Red River Gorge, or so it seems. David Fifer and a teammate pull their response vehicle into the parking lot of a local business, owned by other team members, just to check in. Minutes later, a vehicle grinds to a halt outside. From behind the driver’s seat, out stumbles a man completely covered in blood.“It looked like something out of The Walking Dead,” Fifer remembers. “He was stumbling toward us and had an avulsion from the knee down to the ankle. It was just a massive slab of skin hanging off.”The gentleman confessed to having gone on a “spiritual journey” in the gorge, a saga that entailed fasting for multiple days and bushwhacking with a machete. Somehow, the man had managed to, in effect, filet the lower half of his leg, which was still bleeding uncontrollably. To his credit, the man had attempted to fashion a tourniquet by shredding his pants into long strips of fabric, but the material was too delicate and the strips were hardly wide enough to make a difference. Recognizing this, the man painfully found his way back to his vehicle and started driving. Coming upon Fifer’s idle response vehicle was just a stroke of good luck.“He was about to lose consciousness,” Fifer says of the patient. “The big mistake he made was that the material he was using was just too thin. He had probably already lost so much blood in the first place that he wasn’t really able to focus.”With two other team members, the crew was able to stem the bleeding through direct pressure and without the use of a commercial tourniquet.What not to do: • Bushwhack with a machete, solo, while fasting• Underestimate blood loss—“You can lose a lot of blood over time from even a small wound, and it can be really hard to estimate blood loss since blood can get soaked into soil or leaves or clothing,” says Fifer. “The wound site itself can be deceptive. It’s hard to go wrong about being aggressive with bleeding in the first place. When it comes to controlling bleeding, go big or go home out of the gate. You can’t replace blood if you lose it in the field—the only way to replace blood is through a transfusion.”What to do:• Fashion a tourniquet, early. “Although direct pressure to the wound will control the bleeding in most cases,” says Fifer, “it makes sense to go straight to a tourniquet for any wounds to arms or legs that are bleeding significantly.” Tourniquets can be removed later if deemed too aggressive, but blood can’t be replaced, especially when you’re in the backcountry.• To create a makeshift tourniquet, use materials that are “fairly robust,” such as tubular webbing or nylon rain shells. The fabric should be at least two to three inches wide. “You don’t want something that is going to stretch or tear easily,” Fifer adds, but the material should still be thin enough to twist tightly.• Situate the tourniquet above the wound but not near a joint or too close to the injury site. “Think high and tight.” Find something to act as the windlass, or twisting mechanism, such as a carabiner, tie a square knot over the mechanism, and twist until the hemorrhaging stops and the pulse farthest from the injury is gone. Secure the windlass device so it doesn’t untwist. A tourniquet can stay on safely for at least two hours.• Keep patient warm.• Inspect tourniquet often for loosening.Scenario 2, HypothermiaThe Scene: Fifer and a friend are hiking in the Shenandoah National Park to Marys Rock. The backpacking trip itself isn’t necessarily trying, physically at least, but it’s early March and the nights are still cold. The two arrive at camp, set up their tent, and settle in for the night, at which point, Fifer starts to shiver.“I was not wearing appropriate layers at all,” he says. “My companion was reporting that I was really lethargic, not clear in my thoughts, slurring my speech,” all of which, he says, are signs suggesting mild hypothermia, if not moderate.His friend acted quickly, insulating Fifer with extra layers inside his sleeping bag and fixing up a hot bowl of ramen to get his metabolism working again.What not to do: • Suck it up—“Some people get in this mindset where they say, ‘It’s cold, so I should be cold,’ but if you layer effectively, that should keep you from experiencing that cold.”• Strip down and cozy up in an attempt to transfer body heat. Though there is some research that suggests this approach can be effective, it should be used as a last resort, as it increases the risk of another individual succumbing to hypothermia. “If you’re running low on options, you’re low on calorie-dense food, having trouble starting a fire, don’t have a way to heat liquids, and can bundle up with your companion in a way that won’t make you hypothermic, why not?” says Fifer. “But I’d probably need to not have options A thru D before trying some body heat transference.”What to do:• Shed any wet layers from the patient and add dry ones.• Prevent moisture from reaching the patient.• Add a heat source, like heat packs or a warm water bottle inside the sleeping bag, to increase patient’s heat production.• If patient is able to chew and swallow safely, make high-calorie food to spur metabolism. Warm liquids can make a patient feel comforted, “which is not for nothing. Psychological first aid is real,” says Fifer.• Create a hypo wrap by insulating the patient and wrapping them in a cocoon using an outer moisture barrier, like a rain fly.• If patient is severely hypothermic (think cold to the touch, pale, altered mental status, stopped shivering), handle the patient as gently as possible because aggressive motion can cause them to go into cardiac arrest.Scenario 3, SnakebiteThe Scene: Fifer is scrambling up a hill to set up a rappel, using his hands to stay balanced. Too late to do any good, he notices a copperhead right beside his hand. Surprisingly it doesn’t strike.“Copperheads in particular are actually pretty docile. For the most part, they’re not looking to tangle,” he says, “unless you really make that snake feel threatened.”That’s not to say that climbers and hikers in the gorge aren’t getting bit by snakes. In fact, a friend of Fifer’s recently spent a couple of weeks in the hospital after being bitten by a copperhead. But even then, he says, about 30 percent of all snakebites from the Crotalus genus (copperheads and rattlesnakes) are “dry bites,” where no envenomation occurs. For the remaining 70 percent of bites that do contain venom, the mortality rates are relatively low, about a dozen or less per year, and typically occur in people who either have certain underlying health conditions or are very old or very young. That’s not to say that snakebites in the backcountry should be taken lightly.“Puncture wounds, by definition, are pretty deep and they really do lend themselves to infection,” says Fifer. “Moreover, Crotalus envenomations can cause serious tissue damage if not treated.”What not to do:• Use a tourniquet. Snakebites won’t produce that much blood, and you don’t want to concentrate the venom in one area.• Panic. Snakebites can be treated successfully, even if you are in the backcountry.What to do:• Wash the wound if you can with drinkable water. Puncture wounds are ideal breeding grounds for infection.• Splint and dress the bite as if it were a strain or break, using the “rule of thumb,” for dressings. “You want to be able to slip your thumb underneath the dressing, not too tight,” Fifer says.• Monitor the dressing frequently, as bite site will likely swell. Remove shoes, socks, jewelry, anything near the bite site that could constrict the blood flow in the event of excessive swelling.• Evacuate the victim and get to the hospital immediately for antivenin.Scenario 4, Altitude SicknessThe Scene: Delap and a fellow guide are in the middle of a trip in the Sierras. Their clients are settling in at camp, preparing for the next day’s summit of Mount Whitney, when two climbers come down the mountain with bad news—a woman is unconscious on the saddle of Mount Whitney around 14,000 feet. Delap, who has worked in the emergency medical field for over a decade, sets out with a fellow guide.“She was basically dead,” Delap remembers. “It was dark, she had not made it to the top, and was literally laying up there to die.”When Delap and his partner reach the woman, she is unresponsive. They begin the slow and trying task of taking her down the mountain. When they get 1,500 feet below the saddle, she comes to, enough so that she can even walk on her own, albeit not very gracefully. Another 1,000 feet down and she improves even more to the point that Delap and the other guide don’t have to fully support her. But around 10,500 feet, the woman becomes combative. Instead of expressing gratitude to her rescuers, she refuses any further assistance. All of these developments, says Delap, are telltale signs of altitude sickness.“I’ve seen this before in people where you bring them down and they’re like, ‘Oh I’m fine, I’ll go back up,’ and you have to say ,‘No you’re not fine,’” says Delap. “They’re fine now because they have oxygen in their head, but with altitude sickness, people don’t understand that.”What not to do:• Summit solo.• Ignore proper acclimatization. Above 8,000 feet, the Altitude Research Center recommends sleeping altitude should not increase more than 2,000 feet per day, and that climbers should take one rest day with no elevation change for every 4,000 feet of gain.• Ignore the signs of altitude sickness, in yourself, in your group, or in passing climbers—“If you see someone sleeping on the side of the trail at higher altitudes, or stumbling and falling around, ask them how they’re doing,” says Delap. “If they’re not giving you clear answers, encourage them to come down but be forewarned: they could be combative.” Signs of acute mountain sickness include headache, fatigue, dizziness, nausea, trouble sleeping, and poor decision-making. “It’s like being in a state of drunkenness without any of the good feeling and all of the bad decisions.”What to do:• Descend immediately. It can take as little as 1,000 feet of elevation loss to improve conditions in a patient with altitude sickness.• In severe cases of altitude sickness, known as high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), breathing supplemental oxygen is recommended.Karsten DelapScenario 5, Waterfall AccidentThe Scene: It’s late in November 2016 and a 23-year-old man from Florida is with his friends visiting Moore Cove Falls in the Pisgah National Forest just outside of Brevard, N.C. Feeling bold, the man begins scrambling up the side of the 50-foot waterfall to the top. Suddenly he falls, at first just 10 feet. He lands on a ledge, but moments later, his lifeless body slides over the lip to the waterfall’s base.“By the time we got the call out, got to the trailhead, and hiked in, we’re basically looking at an hour since the accident time,” Delap, who was one of the rescuers, says. “If he had been on the doorstep of the hospital, the likelihood [of survival] still would have been pretty slim.”The man did not survive the attempted resuscitations. His death marked the eighth waterfall-related death in 2016 for Transylvania County, an area well known and beloved for its many waterfalls. Delap says the problem with tourists around waterfalls is that they misjudge their risk management.“If he’d had a helmet on, he could possibly be alive, but people probably aren’t going to hike around a waterfall with a helmet on,” he says. “But the rocks are almost more slick than ice, because ice will melt and can freeze to your boot.”What not to do:• Ignore the warning signs near waterfalls.• In the event someone does ignore the warning signs, slips, and falls, do not make yourself a patient, too. “That’s happened a couple times this year. If you can’t hear them, can’t see them, can’t easily get to them, just call for help or go get help,” Delap says. “It sounds horrible to leave them, but if you rush in there and get hurt, too, that makes it twice as hard on the rescuers.”What to do:• If you’ve determined it’s safe to get the victim, remove them from the water so they are not drowning or getting cold. Assess airway, breathing, and circulation, performing CPR when necessary.• If there is not a head injury, assume there is a spinal injury. Situate them in a position of comfort, “whatever that means for them,” says Delap. “We’re moving past the spinal immobilization devices. If they’re comfortable, their spine is probably not going to move, especially if it’s hurt.”• Remove wet layers, replace with dry clothes and other insulating materials, and treat patient for hypothermia, even in warm weather.Scenario 6, Lower Leg InjuryThe Scene: On a hot summer day at Looking Glass Rock near Brevard, N.C., a young man is out with his girlfriend climbing on the South Side. The man, who had taken a college course on rock climbing, isn’t the most experienced climber, but he knows some basic safety precautions. After scrambling to the top and setting up his anchor, he ties a BHK, or big honking knot, and prepares to rappel. Unbeknownst to him, he ties a slipknot instead, not a BHK, and he doesn’t back it up. When he leans back in his harness to begin the rappel, the slipknot fails, sending him over 60 feet to the ground.“He landed on both feet resulting in a bilateral open tib-fib fracture,” says Delap, who was one of 23 rescue and EMS personnel on site. “Both bones in his lower legs were sticking out, and because of the way Looking Glass is, when he fell, his hands were scraping the rock on the way down. His hands were useless. They were down to the bone.”That, on top of the already debilitating lower leg injuries, meant the man was entirely at the mercy of the climbers at the crag. Fortunately for him, two of those climbers happened to be Wilderness First Responders (WFRs). They made the call for help, gave the young man some water and kept him calm, took note of his allergies and medical history, and one of the WFRs even hiked to the trailhead to meet Delap. The whole rescue, from the time of the call to the time the young man was headed to a hospital, took just under four hours.What not to do:• Go climbing without proper training or a partner who is more knowledgeable.What to do:• Stop bleeding through use of elevation, direct pressure, or tourniquet if hemorrhaging is severe. •Get patient in a position of comfort, being sure to protect the spine but not make it rigid.• Clean the wound with drinkable water. If patient is going into shock, this may not be the highest priority.• Fashion a splint, either with a SAM splint or something equally rigid like trekking poles or reasonably sized tree limbs. Even an empty pack could work in an emergency. If something rigid is not available, use plenty of layers and create bulk for stability. Fill layers and material around injury and wrap.Scenario 7, LightningThe Scene: An outdoor instructor is leading a course with his students at Table Rock in western North Carolina. Thunder rumbles in the distance. The instructor wisely splits up his group to reduce the potential for multiple victims in the event of a lightning strike. His students are well into their course by now, and take up the crouched lightning position in the parking lot.Suddenly, there’s a loud BOOM. The instructor is blasted to the ground. His students scramble to get him to safety and check his pulse. There is none. Fortunately for the instructor, he had taught CPR earlier that week. The students started performing CPR immediately and resuscitated him on the spot.“The reason it was so effective was that the heart that was stopped by the great defibrillator in the sky was a healthy heart,” says Padgett. “With CPR, his heart was able to start itself again,” and the instructor recovered just fine.Padgett herself has been stuck high on ridgelines when storms roll in. She says that especially in North Carolina, a state that had the second highest number of lightning-related casualties between the years 1959-2007, afternoon storms should seriously factor into how and when a person decides to recreate.“We encourage the groups we teach to make sure they summit early in the day because lightning storms are most common between 1 and 5 p.m.”What not to do:• Ignore thunder. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration suggests, “When thunder roars, go indoors!”• Camp on mossy balds or low-lying, treeless fields. • Assume your tent will protect you.• Take shelter beneath lone, tall objects, such as trees.What to do:• Take shelter in forests with many similar medium-sized trees. “Imagine an apple orchard,” says Padgett. These also make safer campsites.• Begin seeking shelter and start descending at the first signs of a storm. Camp in areas where you are not the lowest or tallest point around.• If you’re paddling on the river and stuck in a storm, keep going. “Generally speaking, the fact that you’re on the water and moving downstream to your extrication point, probably the safer thing to do is keep on going,” says Padgett, though different river companies may have different policies.• If you are near your car, take shelter inside, but be sure to move it to a safer location first. “If you can’t avoid lightning, a vehicle is better than no shelter,” Padgett says. “The car could still get struck, so descend and get to a safer place with your vehicle rather than rely on it to protect you.”• Spread group out within earshot of each other and assume the lightning position, crouched down, hunched over, as small as you can make yourself.• If someone is struck by lightning, attempt to move them away from the site. “Lightning does like to strike in the same place twice,” says Padgett. “Check the scene for safety and drag or move the victim to a safer spot.”• Once the storm passes, continue descending if up high or seek better shelter. Storms in the Southeast in particular tend to cycle back around.Scenario 8, LostThe Scene: Padgett is in her early 20s. She’s working for a veterinarian, a man she has come to respect and admire. Her boss takes a vacation to Standing Indian Mountain with his family. While they settle into the campground, Padgett’s boss goes for a hike. The trail is a loop, so he doesn’t think to bring a map or much in the way of supplies. But soon, he starts to worry—is he going the right direction? How much further does he have? Daylight starts to fade and his family, worried, calls 911.“The whole rescue squad came out,” says Padgett, who was relayed the story on the following day. “It took a long time to find him, but he was right there. He was still on the trail!”Short of suffering a moderate case of embarrassment, Padgett’s boss was just fine and reunited with his family shortly after. Getting lost, says Padgett, is a real problem for outdoor enthusiasts, even if you are in an area considered well traveled and developed.“That scenario really illustrated to me that folks who go into areas that are created for recreators with trail signs and beautiful walkways, if they’re not prepared, they can get lost in places we don’t consider easy to get lost in,” says Padgett.What not to do:• Forgo planning or map familiarity.• Continue wandering. Just stay put.• Leave designated trails. “Our mountains have so many nooks and hollers and are quite steep and full of nearly impenetrable thickets,” says Padgett. Theories like following water downhill or hiking in concentric circles can not only lead to increased fatigue and disorientation but can also move you farther away from help.• Rely on your cell phone. “Although I’ve witnessed the accessibility of cell towers skyrocket in our region in the last 20 years, you still cannot get a signal in a lot of areas. Part of your pre-trip planning is knowing where cell service can be accessed along your route.”What to do:• Plan ahead and prepare. “Know where you are going, know your physical limitations…and be fully prepared with shelter, food, and water.”• Tell friends or family where you’re going and when you are expected back.• Have a map and compass and know how to use them.• Bring food and water, or a means of filtering water, always.• Have a buddy, especially if you are an inexperienced hiker.Scenario 9, Bear ScareThe Scene: Brian Sarfino of Tucker County, W.Va., is embracing the simple life outside of South Lake Tahoe in California. His home for the summer of 2003 is nothing more than a backpacking tent and a 10’ x 10’ mesh canopy that acts as his kitchen. He’s been camping out at one particular site in the forest for, he admits, longer than the two-week time limit, but there’s no one else around and, being from the rural mountains of West Virginia, Sarfino feels right at home in the woods. Comfortable. Complacent, even.“I had definitely pushed my luck and gotten lazy with my food care and storage,” Sarfino says. “I just stored my food in the [kitchen] tent.”One morning, Sarfino wakes to the sound of heavy breathing. A muzzle nudges his one-man tent. Then, he hears what he’s been dreading—the shredding of claw-on-mesh, and the subsequent ransack of his kitchen.“That’s when I knew there were multiple bears,” Sarfino says. “I could feel the vibration in the ground when the momma bear would come down from her hind legs. Everyone was getting really excited, or aggressive, I couldn’t tell which.”Now, Sarfino’s sleeping tent isn’t the recommended 100 yards away from his cooking area. No, Sarfino is lying on his mat a mere five feet from the bears’ plundering. As one bear after another charges past with their loot in tow, Sarfino can practically feel the fur brushing past.“I thought they were going to run right through my tent or try to get into my tent,” he says. “I didn’t know what was going to happen.”Escape for Sarfino is not an option. The bears are all around his campsite, and his truck is too far to comfortably reach. Seeing no other option, he rolls onto his stomach, assumes the “play dead” position with his hands over the back of his neck, and waits for three painstaking hours. Fortunately, the bears moved on, satisfied with their night’s feast.What not to do: • Leave your trash and/or food near your tent.• Leave a messy kitchen.• Turn and run in the event of a bear encounter. “They will chase you, and they are faster than we are,” says Padgett.What to do:• Hang food at least 100 yards from where you’re sleeping. “Also, identify where you’re going to do this hang before it gets dark,” adds Padgett. “Setting up a bear bag in the dark is very hard to do and causes people to do a very poor job.”• Cook at least 100 yards away from your tent.• Hang your food at least 12 feet off the ground, five feet away from the tree trunk, and five feet below the branch holding it.• When traveling solo or in small groups, make noise or bring bells in bear country to prevent the element of surprise.• Travel with bear pepper spray on you or quickly accessible.• Should you encounter a bear, face them, slowly back away, quietly. If the bear continues to approach you, make yourself physically look as big as possible and make a lot of noise. Get close to others if you’re in a group and clap and yell while backing away. “You can even hold backpacks over your head. We want them to want to avoid us.”• In the event of a bear attack, follow the National Park Service guidelines. For brown or grizzly bears, play dead by lying flat on your stomach with your hands clasped behind your neck and spreading your legs to prevent the bear from easily turning you over. For black bears, do not play dead. Fight back if a car or some similar form of shelter is not available. Use whatever weapon is available and direct kicks and punches toward the bear’s face.Scenario 10, BurnsThe Scene: Hawkins is leading a sea-kayaking trip in the Florida Everglades for the Yale Outing Club: clear coastal waters, sandy beaches, breathtaking sunrises and sunsets. The trip is stacked up to be a memorable one, until one of the participants gets sunburn.“Sometimes we dismiss sunburns as not very important, but this participant got such bad sunburn that his ears and nose were blistered and he was in so much pain,” Hawkins says.Serious burns, whether from the sun or otherwise, can be seriously painful. More recently, Hawkins’ colleagues answered a call for a woman who spilled boiling water in her lap as she was removing a pot from her camp stove.“The two things we see most often are burns from stoves exploding or boiling water dropped in people’s laps or kicked over from kids running around the campsite,” says Hawkins. “Usually people don’t have medical kits that have sufficient pain medicines to treat that level of pain.”What not to do:• Try to get a tan in the backcountry.• Underestimate anything hot. “A lot of times people get contact burns from trying to flip grills off campfires because they think they can just do it quickly.”• Sit down while you are cooking. “Be mobile and be on your feet in case of a spill,” says Hawkins.• Apply snow or ice directly to the burn site. “You can cause more damage to the skin tissue if it’s too dramatic of a cooling measure.”What to do:• Establish a “no-run” zone while cooking.• Keep stoves clean and in proper working condition.• Place bowls or thermoses on ground (as opposed to holding them) when pouring hot water.• Submerge burn in cool water or use cool, wet cloth to soothe burn.• Apply burn cream or, if not available, antibiotic ointment.• Wrap in dry dressing for extensive burns.Scenario 11, Fish HookedThe Scene: Hawkins and his family are on vacation in the Outer Banks. Hawkins is out in the surf trying to squeeze in a few more waves before the day is done. Out of sight and farther up the beach is a man illegally surf fishing with a long line, but when Hawkins feels a sharp pain in his right big toe, he first suspects a crab, not a fish hook.“I pulled my leg up and it took me awhile to figure it out, but it was a sea fishing fish hook that had gone through my toe. The line had hog tied me around my ankles, so I lost the use of my legs in the surf.”Hawkins frantically waves his arms, helplessly flailing without the use of his legs. A passerby sees Hawkins in distress and gets him to shore. Hawkins successfully depresses the barb to the point where he can edge the hook out of his toe, an uncomfortable but fairly straightforward procedure most anyone can replicate.What not to do:• Panic.• Yank fish hook out of the track it has already created.What to do:• Remove line and anything else attached to fish hook.• Disengage barb and slide out backwards, or rotate barb forward to complete its path so it exits the skin. Cut off the barb and then rotate backwards through its track.• Clean puncture wound with the cleanest available water and mild soap if available.• With fish hooks that have the possibility of transmitting tetanus or animal bacteria, seek medical treatment immediately.Scenario 12, DrowningThe Scene: The Catawba River is flooding. Law enforcement and rescue personnel in Morganton, N.C., are working around the clock to ensure the city’s safety. Despite their warnings, a group of young teenagers decides to hit the water in recreational kayaks. One of the boys hits a low-head dam where the river passes through town. His kayak flips and washes downstream, but his body recirculates in the feature.“By all definitions of the word, this kid drowned,” says Hawkins. “He was pulled out of the water, without a pulse and not breathing, by his friends who did not know CPR.”But what they lacked in medical training, the boy’s friends made up for by placing a call to the Burke County dispatch center, which employs Emergency Medical Dispatchers specifically certified by the state to practice medicine over the phone.“They can train lay public to do CPR over the phone and in real time, that’s what they did,” says Hawkins. “They taught this guy’s friends how to do CPR and he recovered.”What not to do:• Delay CPR.What to do:• Clear out airway obstructions. “Almost invariably people who have drowned have a lot of foam that comes out of their lungs,” says Hawkins. “That’s creepy for people to see, so they spend a lot of time trying to clear this foam, but that can be breathed back into the patient with no complications during emergency ventilations.” Obstructions here can be things like river matter or vomit.• Check for pulse.• Begin rescue breathing immediately. “Now with CPR they are teaching people to look at compressions as really important, but especially in very young kids and drowning patients, it’s the breathing that’s really important. It’s a lung problem, not a heart problem.”• Once the patient establishes breathing on their own, turn them on their side, lying on one shoulder, and place them in the recovery position. “They almost always vomit. If they’re lying on their back and that happens, they can swallow that vomit and get into serious trouble.”• Keep patient warm.
Ex-Chelsea keeper Green: Hudson-Odoi kept smiling during Bayern Munich sagaby Freddie Taylor10 days agoSend to a friendShare the loveFormer Chelsea goalkeeper Rob Green has spoken about Callum Hudson-Odoi and how the youngster handled rumours of a move to Bayern Munich.Hudson-Odoi was unhappy at a lack of playing time under previous Blues boss Maurizio Sarri.Bayern were offering big money for a January transfer, but Chelsea refused to entertain any bids for the player.He has since committed to the club by signing a new contract.Green spoke to BBC 5 Live about the situation, saying: “We would hear the Bayern Munich chat, the chat about other clubs and Callum would just be there smiling.”He knew it was all going on but it was water off a duck’s back for him. “Pressure didn’t exist for him. It still doesn’t.”You look at someone like that, the way he carried himself, the confidence that he had in and around the dressing room was incredible to watch.” About the authorFreddie TaylorShare the loveHave your say
ESPN College GameDayESPN has updated its college football “future” power rankings. The “FPR” is a projection of which college football teams will dominate the sport over the next three years. Here’s ESPN’s description:FPR is a projection of a program’s strength over the next three years, not just the 2016 season. An eight-person panel of ESPN reporters and analysts — Heather Dinich, Brad Edwards, Travis Haney, Sharon Katz, Tom Luginbill, Ted Miller, Adam Rittenberg and Mark Schlabach — graded teams based on five criteria, which were weighed differently to account for their impact on overall sustained success. The criteria: coaching (27 percent of the formula), current talent (27 percent), recruiting (20 percent), title path (16 percent) and program foundation (10 percent).Which team does ESPN think will rule the sport over the next three seasons? The reigning national champions.Alabama, which was overtaken by Ohio State in the 2015 edition of the FPR, has its No. 1 spot back. The Crimson Tide continue to recruit as well as ever and, coming off a national title, they’re an obvious choice for No. 1. Here’s the rest of the top 25: Alabama’s at No. 1, of course.AlabamaOhio StateFSUClemsonMichiganLSUStanfordOklahomaNotre DameMichigan StateFloridaGeorgiaUSCTennesseeTCUUCLATexasAuburnMiamiOle MissWashingtonOregonLouisvilleOklahoma StateNebraskaYou can view ESPN’s full rankings here.
MONTEGO BAY – Government is looking at the possibility of using sections of the Montpelier property in St. James, to provide space for housing solutions in the parish.Following an assessment tour on April 5, Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries, Hon. Roger Clarke, said that although the Montpelier lands are primarily used for agricultural production, about 1,000 hectares, which can be categorised as marginal lands, is being viewed as potential housing space.The tour was to evaluate the potential of the property, which is owned by the Development Bank of Jamaica (DBJ) and has been earmarked for divestment. The Agriculture and Fisheries Minister was accompanied on the tour by Minister with responsibility for Housing, in the Ministry of Transport, Works and Housing, Hon. Dr. Morais Guy; Minister of Labour and Social Security, Hon. Derrick Kellier; Managing Director, DBJ, Milverton Reynolds, and several other government technocrats.“We have looked at the place, and we have in a cursory way, identified areas where we believe housing can be accommodated. It will be subject to some studies…we are mindful also of the environmental impact,” Minister Clarke said.He informed that the touring party was able to identify areas which could be preserved for forestry; watershed; green spaces and historical sites.“What we are trying to come up with is a comprehensive development plan for the entire area, mindful of the fact that Montego Bay is actually hemmed in now. There is need for housing for the greater Montego Bay area, (and) in the tourism industry,” he added.Meanwhile, Dr. Guy, said the development had the potential of being “the Portmore of Montego Bay”.“Certainly if the approval is made and consideration given for housing, which is an expectation on our part, we would want to look at this as an expansion, not only for Cambridge, but also for the dormitory area of Montego Bay,” he stated.“One could look at this possibly as the Portmore of Montego Bay, in terms of what we will be proposing and what we are looking at, and it will certainly provide residence for many persons, not only within the tourism sector but the entire working section of Montego Bay and of western Jamaica”, he stated.He pointed out that such a development would provide a boost in employment during the implementation stage.The Minister said he would patiently await the final decision of the DBJ, and whether or not an application, which has to be made for change of use for that portion of the lands, is approved.In the meantime, DBJ’s Managing Director, Milverton Reynolds, pointed out that any decision taken with regards to the use of the property would be done cognizant of the fact that food security is also very critical.“Clearly from the DBJ’s perspective, we want to work in keeping with the plans that the government have. Clearly the need for housing in this particular area is one that is very critical, and if there are parcels of the property which can be made available for housing, we would be more than happy to do that.” he stated.Contact: Bryan MillerJIS Regional Office, Montego Bay
zoom Miami-based cruise company Carnival Corporation has held a keel-laying ceremony of the first ship of its new liquefied natural gas (LNG) generation, AIDAnova, which will be delivered by Meyer Werft Papenburg in fall 2018.The 180,000 gross ton AIDAnova, which will be the 13th member in AIDA’s fleet, will be traveling Madeira and the Canary Islands for seven-day cruises from December 2018 in its first season. German cruise line AIDA Cruises ordered the ship in summer 2015, as part of a deal for two next-generation cruise ships.With the ceremony, held at Seatrade Europe in Hamburg, the company officially launched the construction of its seven next-generation cruise ships that will be fully-powered by LNG.“Today marked a significant milestone in the construction of this next-generation of Carnival Corporation ships featuring our ‘green cruising’ design, which will be the most environmentally friendly ships in our company’s history,” Arnold Donald, president and CEO of Carnival Corporation, said.Pioneering a new era in the use of low-carbon fuels, these new ships will be the first in the cruise industry that can use LNG to generate 100 percent of their power both in port and on the open sea. The ships, with delivery dates between 2018 and 2022, will be built by leading German and Finnish shipbuilders Meyer Werft and Meyer Turku.Following the introduction of AIDAnova in 2018, Carnival Corporation’s Costa Cruises brand will debut the industry’s next cruise ship that can be powered completely by LNG on the open seas in 2019 – the first steel-cutting ceremony for this ship is scheduled at the Meyer Turku shipyard in the coming week.LNG-powered ships for Carnival Cruise Line and P&O Cruises (UK) will follow in 2020. Costa Cruises and AIDA Cruises will each receive an additional LNG-powered ship in 2021, followed by an additional LNG-powered ship for Carnival Cruise Line in 2022.
APTN National NewsIt has been 29 days since Jordan Wabasse went missing.The 15-year-old was last seen getting off a transit bus on the evening of Feb.7, in Thunder Bay, Ont.He is described as being 6’1 and weighing 200 lbs.He was wearing a dark grey jacket, a blue-grey Toronto Maple Leafs hat, black pants and white Adidas running shoes.Police have been looking for the teen on foot, underwater and by air.His home community of Webequie has set up a volunteer search and rescue headquarters where over 100 volunteers gather every day to look for the teen.Other First Nations in the area are trying to help bring Wabasse home. Family and friends say he loved to play hockey.
VANCOUVER – Just weeks after Greyhound Canada asked for permission to cut a number of bus routes in British Columbia, more information is emerging about requested cuts to service throughout the province.Documents on the B.C. Passenger Transportation Board website show Greyhound has applied to eliminate a total of nine routes, including Prince Rupert to Prince George and Dawson Creek to the Yukon boundary.Additional routes that Greyhound hopes to abandon include one from the University Endowment Lands in Vancouver to Whistler, and Victoria to Vancouver.Peter Hamel, Western Canada regional vice-president for Greyhound Canada, says in a statement that the company will be meeting with northern B.C. mayors at their request in October to provide details on the proposed changes.Hamel said mayors were notified Sept. 13 and notice of the changes is also being posted at the local agencies so that the public can submit questions.A Greyhound spokeswoman says the changes require regulatory approval, nothing is confirmed until this occurs and there will be no changes to routes in 2017.The company has also applied to scale back the frequency of 10 routes including those linking Vancouver to Pemberton, Kelowna, Osoyoos, Prince George and the Alberta boundary.Several other routes through the southern Interior and Similkameen are also slated for service reductions, with Greyhound applying to trim twice-daily service between Kamloops and Kelowna, via Vernon, to twice a week.In August, Greyhound defended its application to stop service along Highway 16, the so-called Highway of Tears, citing high costs and low ridership, but Cache Creek Mayor John Ranta says Greyhound, not small communities, is responsible for the service reductions.“Slowly I am seeing a deterioration of service to rural communities through no fault of our own but through questionable management decisions on the part of Greyhound,” Ranta says.If the cuts and reductions are approved by the Passenger Transportation Board, Cache Creek would see a drop in service when Greyhound’s run from Vancouver to Prince George is scaled back.Greyhound has said it is continuing its discussions with provincial and federal officials regarding options for transportation in rural areas.Officials with the Passenger Transportation Board could hold public consultations as part of the decision process on Greyhound’s application and its website shows the board will accept written comments about the application until Oct. 13. (The Canadian Press, CKIZ, CHNL)Note to readers: This is a corrected story. A previous version said the company applied to cut even more routes.
Manny Pacquiao (right) is set to fight the undefeated Floyd Mayweather for the first time on May 2.Credit: Courtesy of TNSGrowing up as a boxing fan, I’ve heard tales of the legendary bouts of Muhammad Ali and Joe Frazier, Marvin Hagler and Thomas Hearns, the dominance of Mike Tyson’s prime, and Ali and George Foreman.As time passes, these iconic figures in the sport have become forgotten and almost mythical, as our demographic is much more familiar with George Foreman the grill salesman than the all-time great heavyweight. Today we have two prominent figures in Floyd Mayweather (47-0) and Manny Pacquiao (57-5-2), who will one day be among the greats when they hang it up and can perhaps make boxing the center of the sporting world once more, maybe for the last time. With every waning moment, the sport’s popularity diminishes with the UFC and its chaotic nature, itching closer and closer to the sport’s extinction.For years and years, we heard rumblings about these two fighting, but what was the fuss about?I mean, one guy has never come close to losing a day in his professional life, while the other still gets made fun of on the Internet for getting knocked out just two years ago. What makes this fight so interesting is the contrast of styles in how each fighter approaches each match. Mayweather is an all-time great defensive fighter, perhaps the greatest of his kind, and Pacquiao is a no-holds-barred brawler with devastating punching power he still possesses at the age of 36. Pacquiao is also left-handed and fights southpaw, which has been a problem for Mayweather in the past with their awkward angles and combinations of punches. Pacquiao is still one of the greatest fighters of our generation, despite his reckless abandon nature which can get him in trouble, as we saw against Juan Manuel Márquez in 2012.What’s also very compelling about this fight is the comparison of hand speed and quickness. Mayweather usually overwhelms his adversaries with his all-time great defense and quickness. Pacquiao is just as quick with his hands as Mayweather, so whoever can set the tone and pace of this fight and force the other into their realm of boxing should come out on top.With Pacquiao bouncing back from the devastating blow to his legacy that was the Marquez knockout with convincing wins against Brandon Rios, Timothy Bradley and Chris Algieri, this fight should live up to the hype and give boxing fans the dream matchup that’s been lacking in the sport for decades. Two marquee names that can both satisfy the attentive fan and draw in the casual fan are exactly what the sport needs to see a possible resurgence in popularity and attract some of the younger viewers who are more infatuated with the UFC. While this fight might not be Ali-Frazier in 1975 or Hagler-Hearns in 1985, in 2015, it’s the closest we can get to an all-time great fight.With all that being said, the two best fighters of our lives will finally square off on May 2, and personally, I can’t wait.
Ohio State’s women’s volleyball starting lineup stands together prior to the game against No. 5 Minnesota on Oct. 18. Credit: Rebecca Farage | Lantern ReporterThe Ohio State women’s volleyball team wrapped up the non-conference portion of its season this weekend at the Flyer Invitational in Dayton, Ohio. The team defeated Evansville to begin invitational play, but fell to Tennessee and Dayton on Saturday.In Friday’s four-set win over Evansville (6-7), the Buckeyes (9-3) overpowered the Purple Aces at the net with 12 team blocks and held them to a .062 hitting percentage.Evansville suffered seven attacking errors and four service miscues in the first set to kick off an eventual 3-1 Ohio State win. Offensively and defensively, sophomore middle blocker Lauren Witte was a key player. She connected on 10-of-16 error-free swings with a .625 hitting percentage and contributed a season-high seven blocks.Freshman outside hitter Mia Grunze recorded nine kills and three blocks. Redshirt sophomore middle blocker Jordan Fry and junior outside hitter Bia Franklin each recorded four kills.Sophomore setter Becca Mauer had three service aces in the win against Evansville, recording 25 assists. On Saturday, Ohio State lost to Tennessee (9-3) in four sets and to Dayton (9-4) in five sets, ending the Buckeyes’ non-conference schedule with two consecutive losses.Mauer tallied a team-high 26 assists and senior setter Olivia Dailey dished 19 helpers against Tennessee. Freshman opposite hitter Vanja Bukilic was responsible for a career-high 18 kills against Dayton. Sophomore defensive specialist Hannah Gruensfelder, who was named the Big Ten Defensive Player of the Week, posted a match-best 18 digs. Next up, Ohio State will head to Madison, Wisconsin, to face the Badgers at 7 p.m. on Wednesday to open up its Big Ten schedule.